Makroekonomia Archive


Oil and Product Logistics in 2022 – Radical Changes in Routes, Ports and Freight

By Marek Grzybowski

The year 2022 brought radical changes to the transport routes of crude oil and products. After Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, importers experienced a record increase in freight rates for operators of oil tankers and its products. The local war changed the macroeconomic picture of the world economy.


Last year marked a new era in the global logistics of crude oil and petroleum products. December 5 last year With the extension of the European Union’s sanctions package and the entry into force of the EU ban on trade in Russian oil, a new era of oil at sea and on land has begun.

– The year ends with critical macroeconomic challenges regarding the future of VLCC and crude oil freight rates. There is uncertainty about the evolution of the oil supply given the current increase in oil demand and the impact on trade flows, as Europe continued to rely on Russian oil imports until the end of the third quarter, says Sue Terpilowski of SeaNews, using data compiled by Signal Ocean.

In 11 months of 2022 [excluding December], the global supply of crude oil in sea transport increased by 8.6% y/y to 1,866.8 million tonnes, excluding cabotage transport, Refinitiv experts calculated. This means higher demand than in the period January-November 2021 (1,718.3 million tonnes), but it was slightly lower than in the same period of 2019, when it amounted to 1,926.9 million tonnes.

As the geography of crude oil and petroleum product imports changes, fuel terminals in Polish ports play a greater role. We still imported 51% of crude oil from Russia to Poland (January-October 2022). Crude oil from outside this market also reached Poland by sea. The main suppliers were: Saudi Arabia (28%), Norway (8%), Great Great Britain (5%), USA (4%), Kazakhstan (3%), Guyana (1%), Nigeria (1%) – Forum Energii experts calculated.

More: Oil and Product Logistics in 2022



Sea coal logistics in 2022. A radical change in supply routes


By Marek Grzybowski

Russia’s attack on Ukraine and the sanctions introduced by EU countries resulted in radical changes in coal transport chains in 2022 on a global scale. Polish ports also joined the new system of sea connections under the influence of decisive changes in the sources of coal acquisition on the international market. The bulk terminals of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Szczecin and Świnoujście quickly adapted their technical and organizational potential. Polish ports joined the transshipment of coal in import relations.

Periodic shortages of gas and oil on the international market resulted in increased demand for coal. Global coal consumption increased by 1.2% and reached a record level of demand in 2022, according to a report by the International Energy Agency (EIA).

A new record for coal consumption reached 8,025 million tonnes in 2022. This was slightly above the level of 2013, when 7,997 million tonnes were used for energy, industrial and consumption purposes. The lower demand growth in 2022 is largely a reaction to the economic slowdown in leading industrial regions, including China.

The World Economic Forum highlights that only “about a third of the world’s electricity generation capacity now comes from low-carbon sources, with 26% coming from renewables and about 10% from nuclear power. The other two-thirds come from fossil fuels that emit greenhouse gases, such as coal, gas and oil.”

Coal ships will sail for many more miles and ports will handle millions of tons of coal before economies switch to renewable or nuclear power.

More: Sea coal logistics in 2022


Sea transport in economic storms. UNCTAD 2022 Report


Higher grain prices and dry bulk freight rates in early 2022 will contribute to a 1.2 percent increase in consumer food prices. Container ships berthed 13.7% longer in 2021 compared to 2020, exacerbating delays and shortages of goods. Over the past year, the total greenhouse gas emissions from the global fleet have increased by 4.7% – these are the findings of UNCTAD exports included in the latest report “Maritime Transport Review 2022”.

“In short, we need to tackle the many sources of inefficiencies at ports and in land transport networks. This review also calls for better implementation of transport and trade facilitation solutions at ports and borders. At UNCTAD, we work very closely on facilitation through different programs on ports and customs like ASYCUDA and the ports management program. These are our largest technical assistance projects going to really dozens of countries around the world. This report also calls for a faster transition to smart and green logistics systems and to the widespread use of electronic documents in international trade. All of these are solutions to reduce logistic costs, which in turn translate into lower prices for the world” – said Rebeca Grynspan, Secretary-General of UNCTAD in the Statement during the Presentation of the “Review of Maritime Transport 2022” in Geneva.

More: Grzybowski: Transport morski. Raport UCTAD 2022

Presentation of the Review of Maritime Transport 2022


The specter of hunger is haunting the world

Global trade is expected to hit a record $32 trillion in 2022, but the outlook for 2023 is getting bleak. As food becomes more expensive, developing countries are finding it increasingly difficult to keep millions of people from starving, UNCTAD experts have warned.

Global trade in goods and services will approach $32 trillion in 2022. However, the slowdown that began in the second half of the year is expected to deepen in 2023.
The main causes of UNCTAD include geopolitical tensions and difficult financial conditions of the poorest countries. The latest analysis of global economic exchange is included in the December, updated Global Trade Update report.

Expensive dollar – 350 million starving. Food insecurity has tripled the population at risk of famine in the last three years. The number of people starving before the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated at 135 million. UNCTAD analysts alarm that today it is almost 350 million – according to FAO and the United Nations World Food Programme.

Gold wheat. The average price of wheat was 89% higher than in 2020. Over the same period, the average exchange rate of the US dollar against the national currencies of these countries increased between 10% and 46% – in October 2022.
The report shows that a stronger US dollar has an impact on the final price. Adjusted for the exchange rate, the estimated increase in wheat prices ranged from 89% to 106% to 176% depending on the country.

1 billion hungry people. Current information about the turbulence caused by the intensification of the Covid-19 pandemic in China, the activation of Russia’s aggressive actions in Ukraine, the economic slowdown in highly developed countries, the intensification of the combination of infections in Europe and weather anomalies in the United States may make not all of UNCTAD’s postulates feasible. fulfillment.
The war in Ukraine and the turmoil in global logistics chains benefit exporters of energy raw materials, cereals and food. It seems that the number of hungry people will continue to grow to 1 billion people. The situation will change only under the influence of global economic recovery and the construction of a stable energy and food security system.

More: Hunger spec


16th Annual International Conference on Global Studies: Business, Economic, Political, Social and Cultural Aspects

Monday 19 December 2022


Opening and Welcoming Remarks:

  • Gregory T. Papanikos, President, ATINER

10:00-12:00 Session 1
Coordinator: Theodore Trafalis
, Head, Industrial Engineering Unit, ATINER, Professor of Industrial & Systems Engineering and Director, Optimization & Intelligent Systems Laboratory, The University of Oklahoma, USA.
  1. Elisabeth Springler, Professor, University of Applied Sciences BFI Vienna, Austria.
    Nathalie Homlong, Professor, Volda University College, Norway.
    Title: Second Hand Clothing Market in Ghana: Driver for Sustainable Development or Waste Colonialism?
  2. Vincenzo Asero, Assistant Professor, University of Catania, Italy.
    Valia Kasimati, Head, Tourism, Leisure & Recreation Unit, ATINER & Researcher, Department of Economic Analysis & Research, Central Bank of Greece, Greece.
    Title: Event Tourism, Authenticity and Places Identity in the Mediterranean Area.
  3. Yaffa Moskovich, Associate Professor, Zefat Academic College, Israel.
    Title: Lesson learned from Cultural Features of Successful Non-privatized Kibbutz Industry- An Israeli Case Study.
  4. Ju-Hyun Pyun, Associate Professor, Korea University, South Korea.
    Title: The Effect of Inter-Firm Brain Circulation: Spillover from MNEs ‘Foreign’ Human Capital and Local Firms Productivities.


12:00-14:00 Session 2
Coordinator: Nathalie Homlong
, Professor, Volda University College, Norway.
  1. Alejandra-Maria Vilalta-Perdomo, Director of International Academic Development and Global Initiatives, TEC de Monterrey, Mexico.
    Title: Higher Education Institutions Learnings and Resilience from Previous Crisis. Developing Resilience and Learnings from Previous Crisis in Mexico Applied on the Global Covid 19 Pandemic to Continue International Student’s Mobility Operations in a Higher Education Institution in Mexico.
  2. Gannadiy Chernov, Associate Professor, University of Regina, Canada.
    Title: Selective Exposure: Revisiting Key Concepts.
  3. Luisa Weinzierl, Lecturer, St Mary’s University, UK.
    Title: An Integrated Framework on the Impact on Emotions, Challenges and Strategies that Arise from Mixed Proficiency Levels in the Corporate Language in Multinational Teams.
  4. Bekeh Ukelina, Professor, State University of New York, USA.
    Title: Missionization and Early Christian Education in Nigeria, 1843-1900.
  5. Kenneth Christie, Professor, Royal Roads University, Canada.
    Title: Lockdown, Vulnerabilities and the Marginalised: Melbourne as a COVID-19 Response Study.

14:00-15:00 Lunch

15:00-16:30 Session 3
Coordinator: Olga Gkounta
, Researcher, ATINER.
  1. Defne Gönenç, Researcher, Yasar University, Turkey.
    Decolonizing Climate Change: Indian Climate Policies.
  2. Nkululeko Zondi, Lecturer, Durban University of Technology, South Africa.
    Title: Rural Community Perceptions on Land Use Change and Its Effects on their Agricultural Practices in Vulindlela, Kwazulu-Natal.
  3. Veronika Belousova, Associate Professor, HSE University, Russia.
    Title: What Factors Help Universities to Attract Private R&D Funding?
  4. Emilio Bravo Grajales, Researcher, Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico.
    Title: Socio-Environmental Landscape of Daily Mobility in the Lake Zone of Mexico City Tlahuac Xochimilco-Milpa Alta.


16:30-17:30 Session 4
Coordinator: Olga Gkounta
, Researcher, ATINER.
  1. Luigi Spedicato, Associate Professor, University of Salento, Italy.
    Title: Breaking the Obvious: Interpreting Hate Speech on Schützian Reflective Bases.
  2. Pratima Verma, Professor, Alliance University, India.
    Title: Impact of Organizational Politics Perception at Different Stages of the Organization.

Greek Night

Tuesday 20 December 2022

Session 5
09:00-11:00 Session 5a
Coordinator: Kostas Spyropoulos (Administrator, ATINER)
08:15-11:00 Session 5b
Coordinator: Olga Gkounta
, Researcher, ATINER.
  1. Ali Abusalem, Director, E-Learning: The Quest for Quality Education, Australia.
    Title: Engaging and Retaining Students in Online Learning.
  2. Lorraine Bennett, Managing Director, Lorraine Bennett Learning and Teaching Consultancy, Australia.
    Title: Building Academic Integrity and Capacity in Digital Assessment in Higher Education.
  3. Flavia Capodanno, PhD Student, University of Salerno, Italy.
    Title: Appreciative Inquiry for Inclusive Schools: Preliminary Results from A Scoping Review.
  4. Alessio Di Paolo, PhD Student, University of Salerno, Italy.
    Title: Music, Fostering Reading Skills Through Simplex Didactics and Music. Creation of an Inclusive Tool for Pupils with Dyslexia.
  5. Al-Khansaa Diab, Faculty Member, David Yellin college, Israel.
    Title:  Emotional Experiences among Youth Palestinians in the Israeli Jewish Higher Education Institutes.
  6. Fausta Sabatano, Researcher, University of Salerno, Italy.
    Title: Narrative Tool as a Vicarious Tool: An Action-Research on Inclusive Instructional Design.
Old and New-An Educational Urban Walk
The urban walk ticket is not included as part of your registration fee. It includes transportation costs and the cost to enter the Parthenon and the other monuments on the Acropolis Hill. The urban walk tour includes the broader area of Athens. Among other sites, it includes: Zappion, Syntagma Square, Temple of Olympian Zeus, Ancient Roman Agora and on Acropolis Hill: the Propylaea, the Temple of Athena Nike, the Erechtheion, and the Parthenon. The program of the tour may be adjusted, if there is a need beyond our control. This is a private event organized by ATINER exclusively for the conference participants. Some participants have videotaped the event. Click here for an example.


11:00-12:30 Session 6
Coordinator:Elisabeth Springler
, Professor, University of Applied Sciences BFI Vienna, Austria.
  1. Basirat Oyalowo, Senior Lecturer, University of Lagos, Nigeria.
    Title: Between Modernization, Rights & Responsibilities: Lagos Informal Sector Policy through a Political Settlement Lens.
  2. Noa Lavie, Senior Lecturer, The Academic College of Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Israel.
    Title: COVID-19, War and the Decline of Democracy: Combat Lessons from the Israeli TV.
  3. Cheryl-Dean Thompson, PhD Student, Royal Roads University, Canada.
    Title: (Re)Discovering the Empathic Process for a (Re)Generative Approach to Global Challenges.
  4. Mark Rowlands, Master Student, Royal Roads University, Canada.
    Title: Resonating Global Change: A Needs Assessment.


12:30-14:00 Session 7
Coordinator: Basirat Oyalowo
, Senior Lecturer, University of Lagos, Nigeria.
  1. Amer Samar, Associate Professor, Zagazig University, Saudi Arabia.
    Title: Post-COVID-19 Smell, and Hearing Impairment; Frequency, Determinants, and Predictors Case-Control Study 2022.
  2. Sarah Zheng, Assistant Professor, University of Victoria, Canada.
    Title: When Is Standardization Most Beneficial for Reducing Medical Errors? The Moderating Role of Operational Failures.
  3. Abbas Fadhil Mohammed Albayati, Professor, Alqalam University College, Iraq.
    Title: Domestic Violence in Iraq in Light of the Repercussions of the Corona Crisis.
  4. Nemanja Milenkovic, Assistant Professor, University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Title: Measuring Socio-Economic Development of MENA Countries – A Multivariate Approach.

14:00-15:00 Lunch

15:00-17:00 Session 8
Coordinator: Olga Gkounta
, Researcher, ATINER.
  1. Robert Smith, PhD Candidate, University of New England, Australia.
    Title: Is An “Open Innovation” Policy Viable in Southeast Asia?: A Legal Perspective.
  2. Ronagh McQuigg, Senior Lecturer, Queen’s University Belfast, UK.
    Title: Conceptualising Domestic Abuse – The Evolving Approaches of the European Court of Human Rights.
  3. Aleksejs Jelisejevs, PhD Candidate, Turība University, Latvia.
    Title: Good Faith as a Doctrinal Tool to Interpret Legal and Contractual Frameworks for Banks’ Rights to Close Accounts Unilaterally.
  4. Daphne Vidanec, Professor, Balthazar University of Applied Sciences, Croatia.
    Title: Taxonomy Related to the Public Administration Regarding Defence and Security Policy: An Ethical Approach.
  5. Danilo Yanich, Professor, University of Delaware, USA.
    Title: War in Ukraine: What is the Story.
  6. Monica Ewomazino Akokuwebe, Research Fellow, North-West University, South Africa.
    Title: Male Involvement in Family Planning Decisions in Malawi and Tanzania: What are the Determinants?


17:00-18:30 Session 9
Coordinator: Olga Gkounta
, Researcher, ATINER.
  1. Qinghe Hou, PhD Student, Southeastern University, China.
    Title: Assessing Hydrological Cost-Effectiveness of Stormwater Multi-Level Control Strategies in Mountain Park under the Concept of Sponge City.
  2. Antje Bierwisch, Professor, MCI (R) The Entrepreneurial School, Austria.
    Title: Corporate Foresight as an Enabler for Business Model Innovation in the Craft Industry.
  3. Cristian Pelizzari, Associate Professor, University of Brescia, Italy.
    Title: Rainfall Risk Management in the Wine Industry.
  4. Chixiao Lu, Master Student, University of Bristol, UK.
    Title: Analyzing the Performance of Service Industry during Pandemic Using SOCP Transformed Dynamic DEA and Classification DEA.


Wednesday 21 December 2022
Visiting the Oracle of Delphi

Thursday 22 December 2022
An Educational Visit to Selected Islands