Makroekonomia Archive


Europe of coal and steel depends on seaports

By Marek Grzybowski

Global maritime coal trade accelerated in the last months of 2023 and returned to pre-pandemic trade levels. In the period January-December 2023, global sea coal shipments increased by 6% y/y to 1,341.2 million tons (excluding cabotage), based on ship tracking data from AXS Marine, Banchero Costa reports in the latest report. Last year global demand for steel also increased to 1.8% in 2023 to 1.814 billion tons. and in 2024 by 1.9% – we read in the February report of the World Steel Association (WSA – Worldsteel).

The situation on the European market has changed significantly since the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. Let us recall that this organization was established on the initiative of French politicians. The originator of the idea was Planning Commissioner Jean Monnet, and the initiative was implemented by Foreign Minister Robert Schuman. The idea was to eliminate conflicts at the interface between the French and German raw materials markets. The initiative was supported by neighboring countries interested in economic cooperation.

European Coal and Steel Community
The European Coal and Steel Community was established in 1952. The duration of its operation was set in the treaty at 50 years. The treaty was signed by France and the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Italy. Since then, the coal and steel market has transformed into the single market of the European Union.
The Saar area, the Ruhr area and Lorraine have completely changed their “mining and ore” face for over 70 years. However, coal and steel are still its important components. After years of transformation, European countries became increasingly dependent on imports of coal and steel.

The EU accounted for 6.6% of global coal shipments by sea in 2023. Imports of coal through sea ports to the EU increased by 38.2% y/y to 127.6 million tons compared to 2022. Demand for steel in EU countries and Great Britain in 2023, according to WSA information, decreased by 5.1%. on an annual basis, and in 2024 it is expected to increase by 5.8% y/y.

– In 2023, much more coal was transhipped in bulk carrier terminals of EU seaports than in the period January-December 2022. Two years ago, transporters and cranes transported over 1,265.5 million tons between ships and quays in EU terminals. For comparison, in 2021 in 2019 it was 1,254.2 million tons, and in 2020 and 2019, 1,196.5 million tons and 1,309.8 million tons were unloaded between ships and storage yards, respectively – says Banchero Costa Research in its latest report.

The demand for sea transport of coal resulted in high activity of exporters. In the period January-December 2023, coal deliveries to the market from Indonesia via the Pacific routes increased by 10.5% y/y to 496 million tons. Mines and ports in Australia also benefited from the increase in demand. Exports from the Antipodes increased by 4.8% y/y to 344.9 million tons. From Russia, exports to the global market decreased by approximately 2.4% y/y to 184 million tons and from South Africa, coal loads decreased by 0 .3% y/y to 60.4 million tons.

Deliveries from the USA increased by 16.7% y/y

However, deliveries from the USA increased by 16.7% y/y to 86.6 million tons. Bulk carriers from Colombia delivered 2% more coal y/y to ports around the world, transporting 56.4 million tons of this black cargo in January -December 2023. Bulk carriers delivered 50.2 million tons from Canada via the Atlantic and Pacific (an increase of 10.2% y/y), and from Mozambique 23.7 million tons (an increase of 14.6% y/y).

Coal imports on sea routes were created by the People’s Republic of China, Japan, India and South Korea. Interestingly, countries with high development dynamics and innovative economies are also large consumers of coal.
Banchero Costa Research analysts found that mainland China’s bulk terminals handled 48.6% more coal in 2023 than the previous year. 368.4 million tons of this cargo were received from ships at the quays in the period January-December 2023.

Imports to Japan decreased by 10.3% y/y to 160.5 million tons in 2023, imports to South Korea decreased by 4.4% y/y to 117.4 million tons, Taiwan imported 58.3 million tons, less by 4.3% y/y. Imports to India increased by 6.9% y/y to 240.8 million tons and to Vietnam by 54.2% y/y to 47.4 million tons.

EU – coal versus natural gas and renewable energy
The European Union is currently the fifth largest importer of coal by sea in the world, after China, India, Japan and South Korea. In 2023, EU countries created 6.6% of global demand for coal imports by sea.
While coal imports by sea to the EU increased in 2022 by +38.2% y/y to 127.6 million tons, in 2023 imports of this energy raw material dropped sharply by 30.4% y/y to only 88.8 million tons. This is the lowest volume of coal imports in recent years after 2020, when the world was affected by the Covid-19 pandemic.
In 2023, European countries returned to demand from the previous trend, which gradually abandoned coal as an energy source. Natural gas is back in favor. Gas imports from Russia to the EU cost Western European countries approximately EUR 1 billion per month, as we wrote in

The reduction in coal imports is influenced by the dynamically growing supplies of energy from renewable sources. As a result, already in 2020 we observed a decline in European demand for coal by 32.9% year-on-year, and earlier: by 18.3% y/y in 2019, by 7.6% y/y in 2018 – Banchero enumerates Costa.

US – the most important supplier to Europe in 2023
In terms of supply sources, for many years Europe, including Poland, was largely dependent on Russia. After 2022, the situation has changed dramatically. In 2021, as much as 44% of EU coal imports by sea came from Russian ports. In 2023, as a result of the sanctions imposed, this share dropped to 4.3%. This statistic also includes Kazakh coal transported through Russian ports. In the period January-December 2023, coal imports to the EU from Russian ports decreased by 83.6% y/y to only 3.9 million tons (including Kazakh coal).
The most important supplier to Europe in 2023 was the United States. EU countries from this direction met 27.3% of their needs for coal imported by sea. In 2022, deliveries of black cargo from the USA across the Atlantic to EU ports increased by 60.5% y/y to 26 million tons. In 2023, however, they decreased by 7.0% y/y to 24.2 million tons. The second largest supplier to Europe is Australia.
In 2023, 23.2% of the coal needed by the EU was imported to EU countries via the Pacific and the Suez Canal. In 2022, imports from Australia increased by 30.8% y/y to 20.9 million tons. However, in 2023 they decreased by 1.8% y/y to 20.6 million tons.
Colombia is the third supplier of coal to Europe with a share of 16.6%. In 2022, ships delivered 15.9 million tonnes to EU ports. Then deliveries increased by +89.2% y/y. But in 2023, demand from this direction decreased by 7.0% y/y to 14.8 million tons.
In fourth place was South Africa with a 9.1% share in European coal imports in 2023. In 2022, imports to the EU increased by 676.4% y/y to 16.0 million tonnes, but in 2023 . decreased by 49.5% y/y to 8.1 million tons. Indonesia provided only 5.4% of coal imports to Europe in 2023. Volumes from Indonesia to the EU increased by 1,148% y/y in 2022 to 5 .1 million tons, but decreased by 5.2% y/y in 2023 to 4.8 million tons.

Steel market
In 2023, global steel demand reached 1.814 billion tons. This information was provided by the updated short-term forecast of the World Steel Association (WSA). Worldsteel forecasts that in 2024, global demand for steel will increase by 1.9% y/y, to 1.849 billion tons. According to the World Steel Association, steel production in EU countries in 2022 decreased by 10.5% year on year – to 136.7 million tons. Overall, global steel production decreased by 4.3% y/y – to 1.83 billion tons.
Maximo Vedoya, CEO of Ternium and chairman of the Worldsteel economic committee, stated that “demand for steel is influenced by high inflation and high interest rates offered by banks,” reports Halina Yermołenko from GMK Center. According to Vedoya, activity in steel-consuming sectors has declined sharply since the second half of 2022, both in most industries and regions.
This trend continued in 2023, particularly affecting the EU and the US. The activity of the PRC economy has a significant impact on the global steel market. Several months ago, Worldsteel expected that the real estate market in China would stabilize in the second half of 2023. It was expected that the demand for steel in this country would increase by 2% y/y in 2023. However, the forecast for China for 2024 was still uncertain. And probably only when the Chinese New Year ends and the Year of the Dragon begins will we know more.
– We note that the Chinese economy is in the stage of structural transformation, which may increase volatility and uncertainty. Another uncertainty is related to regional conflicts and unrest. This could contribute to rising oil prices and further defragment the global economy, the association said in a statement.

Steel European Union
Last fall it was forecast that the demand for steel in EU countries and Great Britain in 2023, according to WSA forecasts, will decrease by 5.1% annually, and in 2024 it may increase by 5.8% y/y. In fact, imports of rolled steel during 11 months of last year decreased by 13% y/y
In the first 11 months of 2023, imports of finished products decreased by 13% y/y, including flat products – by 9% y/y and long products – by 25% y/y. In 2022, total imports of finished products decreased by 5% y/y. – informs Vadim Kolisnichenko in GMK Center, citing data from the Provincial Administrative Court.
– In the period from January to November 2023, the European Union (EU) reduced imports of steel (including semi-finished products) by 11% compared to the same period in 2022 – informs EUROFER in the “Economic and steel market outlook 2024” published in February -2025.” In 2022, overall steel imports also decreased by 7.3% y/y, while in 2021 they increased significantly by 32% y/y.
– In 2023, imports showed stable volatility, reflecting the fluctuations observed over the previous three years. After the outbreak of the Covid-19 epidemic, steel imports increased and showed some volatility in the second half of 2020. However, growth became much more pronounced in 2021, particularly in the second and third quarters, reaching all-time highs. These dynamics reflected favorable steel demand conditions until the end of 2021, while volatility continued in the fourth quarter of 2021 and throughout 2022, EUROFER reports.

The main countries supplying steel to the EU
The main countries supplying steel to the EU in the period January-November 2023 were India (increase by 7% y/y), South Korea (increase by 6% y/y). Steel supplies from the PRC decreased by 13% y/y and from Turkey (-51% y/y). Meanwhile, steel deliveries by sea to the EU increased in Vietnam (38% y/y), Taiwan (12% y/y), and Japan (32% y/y). These countries accounted for over 58% of all deliveries by sea.
In the flat products segment, imports of all types of products decreased over the 11 months of last year. In particular, imports of cold-rolled and hot-rolled flat products decreased by 27% y/y and 22% y/y, respectively, while imports of coated products decreased by 24% y/y and organic steel by 30% y/y.
Among long products, positive growth by 2% y/y. only records recorded it. However, deliveries of reinforcing bars and wire rod decreased by 31% y/y and 26% y/y, respectively. EUROFER forecasts that in 2023, explicit steel consumption in the European Union will decrease by 6.3% compared to 2022, to 129 million tons. At the same time, in 2022 this number decreased by 6.5% y/y, and in 2024 it is expected to increase by 5.6% y/y.
During the last 11 months EU countries have produced 117.6 million tons of steel and still need it. Three main producers last year. these are the steel plants of the PRC (952.1 million t), India (128.2 million t) and Japan (80 million t). Lower imports of steel, and especially coal, allowed ports to catch their breath after the shortness of breath in 2022. Also Polish ports.
In 2023, 2,825 thousand coal and coke were transhipped in the terminals of the Port of Gdynia. t (in 2022 – 3,403 thousand t.). In Gdańsk there were 13.4 million tons in 2023 and 13.2 million tons in 2022. In the terminals of Szczecin and Świnoujście, 4,310.6 thousand tons were recorded in the statistics. tons of coal in the period January – December 2022 and 2,937.6 thousand t in 2023


Athens Institute for Education and Research Newsletter No. 29, January 2024

Message from the President of ATINER:

I hope and wish that you are doing well. We are living in the post-Covid-19 era after almost 5 years, as this also happened in ancient Athens in 431 BCE, so eloquently described by Thucydides, who, unlike Pericles, survived the pandemic.

Speaking of “survival”, ATINER, with the contribution of its members and friends, fared relatively well during the pandemic years, being able to offer all its academic events online and later a combination of online and onsite presentations. Starting in 2024, we have decided to restrict online presentations only to those who cannot obtain a visa to enter Greece and to those who cannot travel due to serious health reasons.

As you know, ATINER is an association of academics and researchers with a mission to organize small symposiums imitating the ancient Athenian symposiums. This usually entails the participation of between 20 and 50 academics, both presenters and attendees.

With the start of Covid-19, ATINER acquired larger downtown offices (at the heart of the city) which have 4-5 small lecture rooms, enabling us to host all our events at our premises.

Additionally, we have decided to introduce three new eJournals (psychology, politics/international affairs, and demography/population studies). If we are successful in this new endeavor, publication of the journals will start next year.

I do hope that you will be able to come to Athens this year and join one of our small events. In any case, I would love to have a brainstorming meeting with you.


From 3-6 January ATINER successfully organized its 11th Annual International Conference on Humanities & Arts in a Global World. During the conference 19 papers were presented from participants coming from 14 different countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Greece, Morocco, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkiye, UK, Uruguay and USA). The final program of the conference is available at:

A roundtable discussion (symposium) on “Teaching Arts and Humanities in a Global World“, held on January 3, 2024, during the 11th Annual International Conference on Humanities & Arts in a Global World, at ATINER’s Downtown Office in Athens. The final program for the round-table discussion is accessible at:, and the video is available on YouTube:

Dr. Natasha Johnson (Instructor, Georgia State University, USA) has joined as a new academic member in our Education and Politics & International Affairs Units.

Dr. Thaddeus Johnson (Assistant Professor, Georgia State University, USA) has joined as a new academic member in our Education and Politics & International Affairs Units.

Dr. Carlo Klein (Economics Teacher, Luxembourg) has joined as a new academic member in our Economics and Sociology Units. We are glad to announce that Dr. Klein is our first member coming from Luxembourg.

Dr. Zoulal Mansouri (Associate Professor, Hassan II University of Casablanca, Morocco) has joined as a new academic member in our Education and Management Units.

Dr. Carolyn Schoenian (Instructor, Helix Opportunity, USA) has joined as a new academic member in our Education and Computer Units.

ATINER is organizing a Special Session on “Unemployment in the Mediterranean Countries” as part of the 17th Annual International Conference on Mediterranean Studies, 25-28 March 2024, Athens, Greece.

The Nursing Unit of ATINER is organizing a Special Session on “Integrating Palliative Care and Supportive Care in Acute Areas” as part of the 10th Annual International Conference on Nursing, 6-9 May 2024, Athens, Greece.

The Sociology Unit of ATINER is organizing a Special Session on “Social Work” as part of the 18th Annual International Conference on Sociology, 6-9 May 2024, Athens, Greece.

The History Unit of ATINER is organizing a Special Session on “Alexander the Great – The King of Macedonia, the Campaigns, the Archaeology” as part of the 22ndAnnual International Conference on History & Archaeology: From Ancient to Modern, 3-6 June 2024, Athens, Greece.

The Economics Unit of ATINER is organizing a Special Session on Degrowth as part of the 19th Annual International Symposium on Economic Theory, Policy and Applications, 1-4 July 2024, Athens, Greece.

Publications Uploaded This Month

Athens Journal of Education
Athens Journal of Law
Athens Journal of Mediterranean Studies
Forthcoming Papers

Deloitte – Trendy Technologiczne 2024

Przedstawiamy sześć trendów technologicznych, które będą miały wpływ na rozwój firm w nadchodzących latach
Jakie trendy technologiczne zdominują najbliższych 24-36 miesięcy?
Trzy kluczowe siły napędzające (interakcja, informacja i obliczenia) oraz trzy kluczowe siły wzmacniające (biznes technologiczny, wzmocnienie rdzenia i cyberbezpieczeństwo oraz zaufanie) są fundamentem, na którym opiera się nasz raport “Deloitte Tech Trends”. W tej piętnastej edycji corocznego raportu omawiamy sześć głównych czynników, które pokazują, że w dobie maszyn generatywnych utrzymanie zintegrowanej strategii biznesowej, solidnych podstaw technologicznych i kreatywnej siły roboczej jest teraz dla organizacji ważniejsze niż kiedykolwiek.
W odniesieniu do wcześniej wspomnianych sześciu obszarów technologicznych, analitycy Deloitte opisują zachodzące zmiany i co roku przedstawiają prognozy rozwoju rynku w kolejnych 24-36 miesiącach. Jakie trendy z tegorocznego raportu Deloitte „Tech Trends 2024” mogą być rewolucyjne dla świata technologii i biznesu?

Trend technologiczny #1

Interfejsy w nowych sferach: Obliczenia przestrzenne i przemysłowe metawersum

W jednym z trendów opisywanych w zeszłorocznej wersji raportu “Po drugiej stronie lustra: przedsiębiorstwa w metaverse” przewidywaliśmy, że metaverse, czyli immersyjny internet, wkrótce stanie się pełnoprawnym narzędziem dla przedsiębiorstw, które odkrywają nowe możliwości interakcji, takie jak rozszerzona i wirtualna rzeczywistość (AR/VR).

W tym roku podkreślamy, że niektóre z tych technologii rozwijają się w nowych kierunkach. Po przejściu od zabawek konsumenckich do narzędzi biznesowych, technologie przestrzenne są szczególnie popularne w zastosowaniach przemysłowych, gdzie firmy koncentrują się na cyfrowych bliźniakach, symulacjach przestrzennych, rozszerzonych instrukcjach pracy i współpracujących przestrzeniach cyfrowych, które podnoszą w organizacjach poziom bezpieczeństwa i efektywności. Przewiduje się, że przychody napędzane przez przemysłowy metaverse osiągną prawie 100 mld USD do 2030r., znacznie przewyższając segment konsumencki (50 mld USD) i korporacyjny (30 mld USD).

Trend technologiczny #2

Nieuchronna kolej rzeczy: GenAI jako katalizator wzrostu

Filozofowie od dawna debatują, czy maszyny są zdolne do myślenia, lecz generatywna sztuczna inteligencja (GenAI) czyni tę kwestię nieistotną. Podstawowe działanie tych modeli ma wiele wspólnego z wcześniejszymi narzędziami uczenia maszynowego, ale dzięki zwiększonej mocy obliczeniowej, lepszym danym szkoleniowym i sprytnemu kodowaniu GenAI może imitować ludzkie zdolności poznawcze na różne sposoby. Bez względu na to, czy AI posiada inteligencję w kontekście filozoficznym, z pewnością ma przełożenie na zastosowania praktyczne. Otwiera to szereg możliwości rozwoju w przedsiębiorstwach – jeżeli maszyny potrafią zachowywać się, rozumieć i opowiadać historie jak ludzie, pytanie brzmi – w jaki sposób to wpłynie na biznes i szeroko rozumiany świat?

Trend technologiczny #3

Mądrze, nie ciężko: Wykraczając poza obliczenia siłowe

W miarę rosnącego znaczenia technologii w biznesie, firmy doświadczają coraz bardziej złożonych obciążeń i wyzwań. Klasyczne usługi chmurowe wciąż dostarczają wystarczającej ilości funkcjonalności dla większości codziennych operacji biznesowych, ale dla innowacyjnych zastosowań, które decydują o przewadze konkurencyjnej, pojawia się nowa potrzeba posiadania specjalistycznego hardware’u. Szkolenie modeli sztucznej inteligencji, przeprowadzanie skomplikowanych symulacji czy też tworzenie cyfrowych bliźniaków środowisk rzeczywistych wymagają zupełnie innego kalibru mocy obliczeniowej. Wiodące dzisiaj przedsiębiorstwa znajdują nowe sposoby wykorzystania istniejącej infrastruktury i dodawania nowoczesnego sprzętu i rozwiązań, aby jeszcze bardziej przyspieszyć procesy. Wkrótce niektóre z nich będą rozważać perspektywę wyjścia poza tradycyjne obliczenia binarne.

Trend technologiczny #4

Od DevOps do DevEx: Budowanie doświadczeń programisty

W miarę wzrostu postrzegania nowoczesnych technologii, jako czynnika różnicującego i istotnej części biznesu, talenty technologiczne stają się ważniejsze niż kiedykolwiek wcześniej. Natomiast obecne metody pracy pozostawiają wiele do życzenia pod względem efektywności. Aktualnie jednak coraz więcej firm przyjmuje nowe podejście, skupiając się na przyciąganiu i zatrzymywaniu najlepszych talentów technologicznych.

Developer experience, czyli DevEx, to podejście skoncentrowane na programiście, które ma na celu poprawę codziennej produktywności i wzroście satysfakcji.

Trend technologiczny #5

W obronie rzeczywistości: Prawda w dobie syntetycznych mediów

Wraz z rozpowszechnianiem się narzędzi sztucznej inteligencji, oszustom jest łatwiej niż kiedykolwiek wcześniej dokonywać podmian tożsamości i wprowadzać w błąd swoje ofiary. Technologia deepfake jest wykorzystywana do obejścia biometrycznej kontroli dostępu opartej na rozpoznawaniu głosu i twarzy. Dzięki łatwości generowania głosu brzmiącego jak prawdziwy, jest również używana w próbach phishingu. Ryzyko związane z utrzymaniem zabezpieczeń rośnie wraz z pojawianiem się każdego nowego narzędzia GenAI. Aby temu przeciwdziałać, firmy starają się łączyć polityki bezpieczeństwa i technologię, aby identyfikować szkodliwe możliwe ataki oraz podnosić świadomość pracowników w zakresie bezpieczeństwa.

Trend technologiczny #6

Core workout: Od długu technologicznego do technologicznego dobrostanu

Po wieloletnich inwestycjach w technologie, które kiedyś uznawane były za nowoczesne, przedsiębiorstwa stają teraz przed wyzwaniem związanym z koniecznością zmodernizowania kluczowych elementów, takich jak mainframe’y, sieci czy centra danych. Aby być gotowym na wyzwania przyszłości, konieczne jest porzucenie fragmentarycznego podejścia do obszarów długu technologicznego i zastąpienie go nowym, całościowym i kompleksowym.

Zapobiegawcze oceny dobrostanu, oparte na wpływie na biznes, mogą pomóc zespołom określić, które obszary „stosu” technologicznego wymagają uwagi, a które mogą nadal skutecznie spełniać potrzeby IT. W przyszłych latach firmy prawdopodobnie będą opracowywać bardzo dostosowany i zintegrowany plan obejmujący cały „stos” technologiczny, w tym inwestycje w technologie samonaprawcze, które zmniejszą potrzebę przyszłych modernizacji.

źródło: Raport: Trendy Technologiczne 2024


McKinsey: Women are more ambitious than ever


This is the ninth year of the Women in the Workplace report. Conducted in partnership with LeanIn.Org, this effort is the largest study of women in corporate America and Canada. This year, we collected information from 276 participating organizations employing more than ten million people. At these organizations, we surveyed more than 27,000 employees and 270 senior HR leaders, who shared insights on their policies and practices. The report provides an intersectional look at the specific biases and barriers faced by Asian, Black, Latina, and LGBTQ+ women and women with disabilities.

This year’s research reveals some hard-fought gains at the top, with women’s representation in the C-suite at the highest it has ever been. However, with lagging progress in the middle of the pipeline—and a persistent underrepresentation of women of color1—true parity remains painfully out of reach.

The survey debunks four myths about women’s workplace experiences and career advancement. A few of these myths cover old ground, but given the notable lack of progress, they warrant repeating. These include women’s career ambitions, the greatest barrier to their ascent to senior leadership, the effect and extent of microaggressions in the workplace, and women’s appetite for flexible work. We hope highlighting these myths will help companies find a path forward that casts aside outdated thinking once and for all and accelerates progress for women.

The rest of this article summarizes the main findings from the Women in the Workplace 2023 report and provides clear solutions that organizations can implement to make meaningful progress toward gender equality.

State of the pipeline

Over the past nine years, women—and especially women of color—have remained underrepresented across the corporate pipeline (Exhibit 1). However, we see a growing bright spot in senior leadership. Since 2015, the number of women in the C-suite has increased from 17 to 28 percent, and the representation of women at the vice president and senior vice president levels has also improved significantly.

Four myths about the state of women at work

This year’s survey reveals the truth about four common myths related to women in the workplace.

Myth: Women are becoming less ambitious
Reality: Women are more ambitious than before the pandemic—and flexibility is fueling that ambition

Myth: The biggest barrier to women’s advancement is the ‘glass ceiling’
Reality: The ‘broken rung’ is the greatest obstacle women face on the path to senior leadership

Myth: Microaggressions have a ‘micro’ impact
Reality: Microaggressions have a large and lasting impact on women

Myth: It’s mostly women who want—and benefit from—flexible work
Reality: Men and women see flexibility as a ‘top 3’ employee benefit and critical to their company’s success

More: McKinsey Report: Women in the Workplace Full Report (52 pages)


Ekonomista 2023 No 3

Ekonomista is a journal dedicated to science and the requirements of life that was launched in 1900. It is published by the Polish Economic Society and the Institute of Economics of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Editor-in-chief: prof. dr hab. Marian Gorynia
Current issue 3/2023
The soundness of returning to manufacturing through the lens of productivity accounting Dariusz Cezary Kotlewski 
Ekonomista 2023;(3):253–274 DOI: Abstract  Article (PDF) Stats
Going digital and intangible: intangible investments effects on a company’s success Eva Erjavec 
Ekonomista 2023;(3):275–294 DOI:  Abstract  Article (PDF) Stats
State-owned enterprises in the modern economy: the objectives and determinants of efficiency Katarzyna Szarzec 
Ekonomista 2023;(3):295–314 DOI: Abstract  Article (PDF) Stats
The evolution of capitalism and the concept of a natural economic order Bogusław Fiedor 
Ekonomista 2023;(3):315–332 DOI:  Abstract  Article (PDF) Stats
Reflections on Oblicza polskiego etatyzmu gospodarczego by Stanisław Czaja and Bogusław Fiedor; Piotr Szymaniec, Lech Kurowski 
Ekonomista 2023;(3):333–340 DOI: Abstract  Article (PDF) Stats
Review of the monograph: Polskie przedsiębiorstwo na jednolitym rynku europejskim. Wyzwania współczesności, eds Marian Gorynia, Joanna Kuczewska and Alojzy Z. Nowak, Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne, Warsaw 2022 (245 p.) Adam A. Ambroziak 
Ekonomista 2023;(3):341–343 DOI:  Article (PDF)
More: Ekonomista